The Rise of Nationalism in Europe | History | Std. X
Short and Long Answer Questions1. Explain any three features of the class of landed aristocracy of Europe.
Answer -The three features of the class of landed aristocracy in Europe.
1. During the mid 18th century, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class in Europe both politically and socially.
2. They owned huge properties, big estates both in the rural and urban areas.
3. Their families were tied together by matrimonial relation and they wielded much power in their respective countries.
2. What were the dissimilarities between the process of unification of Italy and Germany?
Answer -Following were the dissimilarities between the processes of unification of Italy and Germany.
i. Piedmont was main state in unification of Italy but it was a weak state. But Prussia which was leading the German unification was a powerful state.
ii. Most of the Italian states were under great influence of Austria but Austria was only the head of German confederation of states.
iii. Bismark always favoured the use of force in the unification of Germany but Cavour hardly believed in use of force in unification of Italy.
3. Who was Garibaldi? What were his main achievements?
i. Garibaldi was one of the great revolutionaries of Italy. He was born in 1807 and his parents wanted to make him a priest but he had no interest in this profession.
ii. He was a brave and courageous person who favoured the use of force for unification of Italy.
iii. He started “Young Italy” movement with Mazzini.
iv. He organized a force called ‘White Shirts’ which defeated Austrian forces to liberate Naples and Sicily. It was later joined by Sardinia. In this way Garibaldi played a great role in the unification of Italy.
4. What role did language play in developing nationalist sentiment?
i. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
ii. In 1813 an armed rebellion against the Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.
Following this many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
iii. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
5. What is meant by ‘Imperialism’? Give two features of imperialism.
Answer-The term “Imperialism” means the practice extending the power, control or rule by a country over the political and economic life of area outside its own borders.
The following are the two main features of “Imperialism”
i. The first essential feature of imperialism is exploration of economic resources of the occupied areas for the benefit of the imperial country.
ii. The imperial power subordinates the interests of the colonies and establishes its monopoly over the trade of its colonies.
6. Study the given passage and answer the questions that follow.
‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion, a heroic past, great men, glory that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea, to have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore large scale solidarity….. . Its existence is a daily plebiscite……. A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitants. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding onto a country against its will. The existence of a nation is a good thing, a necessary evil. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’
1.1 From whose speech have these words been quoted?
1.2 Explain the meaning of plebiscite.
1.3 Examine the concept of nation as given in the above passage.
1.1 These words have taken from speech of Ernst Renan a great French Philosopher (1823 – 1992).
1.2 Plebiscite means a direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
1.3 A nation is the culmination or a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. It involves having common glories in the past, common will in the present performing great deeds together and wishing to perform still more.
7. Explain the concept of liberal nationalism which developed in Europe in early 18th century.
Liberalism meant different things to different people. In the political sphere, liberalism stood for:
i. equality before the law.
ii. Revolutionary French marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy in which right to vote and get elected was granted exclusive to property-owning men.
iii. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
In the economic sphere liberalism stood for:
i. Freedom of markets and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
ii. Customs union or ‘Zollvarin’ was formed in Russia, joined by the German states.
iii. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.
8. Define nation? What were the significant aspects of the nation-state in the early 19th century?
According to Bryce, A nation is a nationality which has organized itself into a political body either independent or desiring to be independent. Thus a nation is a community which considers itself one and is held together by many ties. Following were the significant aspects of the nation-states in the early 19th century.
i. Each nation wanted to have its own independent state. That is why it was called a nation state.
ii. The nations-states held the people together on the basis of common territory, common language, common culture and economic independence.
iii. In some nation – state, the constitutional governments based on written or unwritten constitutions were established.
iv. The establishment of nation – states replaced the previous boundaries by new scientific system of boundaries.
9. Which factors led to rise of nationalism in Europe after 1830’s?
Following factors were responsible for the rise of nationalism.
i. Feudalism was one of the greatest obstacles in the way of nationalism. But various Feudal lords died in mutual wars and crusades also led to their fall. This led the way for decline of feudalism and rising of nationalism.
ii. In medieval period church was very powerful and had a great power all over the world. But people were awakened by the movements like renaissance and reformation. It led to decline in the authority and power of pope. This led to establishment of national church in many countries. Weakness of papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.
iii. Many wars have also arisen sentiments of nationalism among the people.
iv. Foreign Rules: Foreign Rulers generally liked to suppress the subject nation which played an important part in the growth of nationalism.
v. Reaction against injustice and arbitrary rule of unjust monarchs also gave birth to the feeling of nationalism.
vi. Contribution of great writers: The writings of great poets, politicians and philosophers like Machiavelli, Mills, Mazzini and Garibaldi went a long way in rousing political consciousness and national spirit among the people
10. Why did nationalist tension emerge in the Balkans?
The states between the Black sea and Adriatic Sea like the Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina etc. are known as the Balkans states. For a long time these states were a bone of contention between various European powers and Turkey. Following were the main causes for immergence of nationalist tensions in the Balkans.
i. The nationality of the people states were however Christians. The Muslims who were the ruling class oppressed them in many ways.
ii. By the beginning of the 19th century, the Turkish Empire became very weak. This encouraged the Balkan people who were mostly Christians.
iii. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars inspired the feelings of nationalism among them and they clamoured for independence.
iv. At the same time there was a clash of interests among the big powers in the Balkans. This also contributed to the emergence of nationalist tensions in the Balkans.
11. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Following steps were taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
i. First, ideas of Fatherland (La Patric) and the Citizen (La Citizen) laid emphasis on the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
ii. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former French monarch.
iii. An elected body of active citizens known as the National Assembly was formed to manage the state affairs.
iv. New hymns were composed and martyrs were commemorated all in the name of the nation.
v. A centralized system was set up to formulate uniform laws for all citizens within the French territory.
vi. All custom duties were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
vii. Regional dialects were discouraged and French was adopted as the common language of the nation.