Sunday, 3 March 2013

Notes on The Age of Industrialisation | Q&A


Q.1: - What was the result of First World War on Indian industries?
Ans: First World War gave a great boost to the Indian Industries because of the following reasons-
1. The British mills became busy with the production of War materials so all its exports to India virtually stopped.
2. Suddenly Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market.
3. The Indian factories were called upon to supply various war related material like- Jute bags, clothes for uniforms, tents and leather boots for the forces and so on.

Q.2: - Who was a jobber? Explain his functions.
Ans: Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often the jobber was an old and trusted worker.
1. He got people from his village ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in time of crisis.
2. Jobbers became persons with authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for the favour he did and started controlling the lives of workers.

Q.3: - What were the problems of Indians weavers at the early 19th century?
Ans: The problems of Indians weavers at the early 19th century were as follows:
1. Shortage of raw material – as raw cotton exports from India increased the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.
2. Clashes with Gomasthas- the Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So the weavers clashed with them.
3. System of Advances- the Britishers started the system of advances to regularize the supply. The weavers eagerly took the advances in a hope to earn more but they failed to do so. They even started loosing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.

Q.4: - What does the picture indicate on the famous book ‘Dawn of the century’?
Ans: The picture on the famous book ‘Dawn of the century’ indicates:
1. There is an angle of progress, bearing the flag of the new century and is gently perched on a wheel with wings symbolizing time.
2. The fight is taking into the future.
3. Floating about behind her are the sign of progress- Railway, Camera, Machines, Printing press and factory.

Q.5: - Mention some of the problems of the Indian Merchants industrialist?
Ans: The problems of the Indian Merchants industrialist:
1. Limited Market – The market within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited.
2. Restriction on export of manufactured goods – the Indian merchants and traders barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and had to export only raw materials and food grains – raw cotton, opium and wheat, Indigo – required by the British.
3. Introduction of modern ships -- With the entry of modern ships Indian Merchants were edged out of shipping business.

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Long Answer Type Questions of The Age of Industrialization

Q.1: - Explain the main features of Proto – Industrialization?
Ans: Main features of Proto Industrialization-
1. Production was not based on factories.
2. Large scale home based production for international market.
3. Merchants moved to countryside and supplied money for artisans to produce for international market.
4. It provided alternative source of income.
5. Income from pro-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from.
6. Helped in fuller use of their family labour resources.
7. Close relationship.

Q.2: - How did the British market expand their goods in India?
Ans: The British market expanded their goods in India in the following ways:
1. Advertisement of product – Advertisement makes products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. During the industrial age, advertisements have played a major role in expanding the market for products.
2. Putting labels on the cloths bundles – The labels was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on a label, they would feel confident about buying the cloths.
3. Images of Indian Gods gave approval to the goods being sold. Images of
Krishna and Saraswati was intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian People.
4. Printing Calendars to popularize their products unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in the tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and in middle class houses.

Q.3: - ‘The Industrial Revolution was a mixed Blessing.’ Explain?
Ans: Blessing of the Industrial Revolution –
1. Production by machines has met the growing need of the growing population of the world.
2. Only machines have made it possible for the mankind to meet the primary necessities of food, cloths and shelter.
3. Machines have relieved man of the drudgery of tiring and unpleasant jobs.
4. Machines have brought more leisure.

Harmful effects of Industrial Revolution-
1. The industrial Revolution shattered the rural life by turning the farmers into landless labourers.
2. Rural unemployment forced the unemployed farmers to migrate to cities in search of jobs.
3. The cities became overcrowded and many problems of insanitation and housing arose.
4. The industrial Revolution gave birth to imperialism.

Q.4: - Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers.
Ans: The system of advances proved harmful for the weavers for the following reasons:
1. No chance of bargaining – The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.
2. Leasing of land – most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving.
3. Dependency for food on others – most of the weavers after loosing their land became dependent on other for the food supplies.
4. Clashes with Gomasthas – Gomasthas acted arrogantly, marched into villages with police and punished weavers for delay in supply.

Q.5: - What were the problems faced by the cotton weavers in India.
Ans: The problems of Cotton weavers in India.
1. There export market collapsed.
2. Local market also shrunk as it was flooded with Manchester imports.
3. Produced by machines at lower coasts, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
4. By 1860 weavers could not get sufficient supply of row cotton of good quality.

1. Industrialization is a necessary evil.
2. Industrialization has led to modern, developed and global world.


Q.1: Explain the following:
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it could spin many spindles with one wheel. This increased productivity and led to decrease in employment of women for spinning. Angry women therefore, attacked the machine.

(b) The trade and commerce guild controlled the market, raw materials, employees, and also production of goods in the towns. This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who lived in villages.

(c) By the end of 18th century the port of Surat declined mainly because of the growing power of the European Companies in India. These European Companies gradually gained power and started to control sea-trade in India. They secured a variety of concessions which they obtained from local courts and by gaining monopoly rights to trade. These companies did not want to use the old ports of Surat, Masulipatnam, and Hooghly etc. In stead they developed the port of Bombay.

(d) As the East India Company established political power in India, it wanted to further assert a monopoly right to cotton textile silk trade. The Company’s objective was to develop a system of management and direct control over the weavers so that it could eliminate competition over costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. They did this through a series of steps. So, with this aim they appointed ‘gomasthas’ as their paid servants to supervise weavers, ensure timely supplies, examine the quality of cloth and also advanced loans to weavers.

Q.2: Write True or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of 19th century, 80% of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the 18th century.
(c) The American civil war resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Ans: (a) F (b) T (c) F (d) T

Q.3: Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Ans: ‘Proto’ means the first or early form of something. By proto-industrialisation historians refer to the period in which Europe and England produced goods for the international market, on a large scale, even before there were factories. Thus, proto-industrialisation is meant for the phase of industrialization when handmade products were produced for the industrial market.

Q.4: Why did some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Ans: Some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines due to the following reasons:
a. Machines were costly, ineffective, difficult to repair, and needed huge capital investments.
b. Labour was available at low wages at that period of time.
c. In seasonal industries only seasonal labour was required.
d. Market demands of variety of designs and colour and specific type could not be fulfilled by machine made clothes. Intricate designs and colours could be done by human-skills only.
e. In Victorian age, the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made by hand only.

Q.5: How did East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Ans: After establishing political power in India, the East India Company tried to acquire a monthly right to cotton textile and silk goods trade. It also started to procure regular supplies of these goods from Indian weavers. This could be achieved by tem after taking a series of steps. First, they established their management and a direct control over the weavers by appointing their paid servants called gomasthas. Gomasthas supervised weavers, examined the quality of goods and ensured regular supplies.
Second, the Company prevented weavers from dealing with their buyers by giving them ‘advances’ against purchase orders. Thus, the weavers after taking loans could not sell their cloth to any other trader and had to work under the Company’s gomasthas.

Q.6: Why did industrial production in India increase during First World War?
Ans: India witnessed increased industrial production during the First World War due to following reasons:
(i) British industries became busy in producing and supplying war-needs. Hence, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes for colonial markets like that in India.
(ii) It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill in empty Indian markets with their products. It was done so. Therefore, industrial production in India increased.
(iii) Also the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply the war needs like - jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle, etc.
(iv) The increased demands of variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and old ones increased their production.
(v) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
These were the various reasons responsible for the boom in the industrial production in India during the First World War.

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