Notes on Climate | MCQs & Q&A


Questions-Answers and MCQs of Climate



CLASS 09 GEOGRAPHY Notes on Climate | MCQs & Q&A

1. Which of the following is not an element of weather and climate?
(a) Atmospheric pressure
(b) Temperature
(c) Humidity
(d) Altitude

2. Which of the following terms refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years)?
(a) Atmosphere
(b) Annual range of temperature
(c) Climate
(d) Monsoons

3. Which of the following statements defines weather?
(a) Envelope of air surrounding earth
(b) State of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time
(c) Atmospheric conditions over a large area for a long period of time
(d) Generalized monthly atmospheric conditions.

4. Which one of the following terms is used for the state of atmosphere over an area at any point of time?
(a) Weather
(b) Winds
(c) Climate
(d) Pressure

5. In which of the following places of India precipitation is in form of snowfall?
(a) Shillong
(b) Drass
(c) Chandigarh
(d) Haridwar

6. Which of the following places of India experiences the highest summer temperature?
(a) Pahalgam
(b) Leh
(c) Thiruvananthapuram
(d) Jaisalmer

7. Which of the following is the rainiest station?
(a) Shillong
(b) Mumbai
(c) Chennai
(d) Kolkata

8. Which one of the following is the driest station?
(a) Mumbai
(b) Leh
(c) Bengaluru
(d) Delhi

9. Most parts of India receive rainfall during which of the following months?
(a) December to February
(b) March to May
(c) June to September
(d) October to November

10. In which of the following months does the Tamil Nadu coast get most of its rainfall?
(a) December to February
(b) March to May
(c) June to September
(d) October to November

11. Which of the following places in India experiences a very high diurnal range of temperature?
(a) Kolkata
(b) Jodhpur
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi

12. In which of the following places of India there is very little difference between day and night temperatures?
(a) Guwahati
(b) Nagpur
(c) Thiruvananthapuram
(d) Delhi

13. In which of the following places are houses built on stilts?
(a) Assam
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Goa
(d) Kerala

14. Which one of the following is not one of the six major controls of the climate of any place?
(a) Latitude
(b) Temperature
(c) Pressure and wind system
(d) Distance from the sea

15. Latitude and altitude of a place determine which of the following climatic elements of a place?
(a) Pressure and wind system
(b) Temperature
(c) Rainfall pattern
(d) All the above

16. Which of the following places have cooler climate even during summers?
(a) Allahabad
(b) Mumbai
(c) Mussoorie
(d) Amritsar

17. Which of the following places of India experiences extreme type of climate?
(a) Shillong
(b) Bengaluru
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi

18. Due to which of the following factors does Pune receive much lesser rainfall as compared to Mumbai?
(a) It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats
(b) It is located on windward side of Western Ghats
(c) Continentality
(d) Distance from the sea

19. Which of the following latitudes passes through the middle of our country, giving it the characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climate?
(a) Tropic of Capricorn
(b) Tropic of Cancer
(c) Equator
(d) 82°30'N

20. The Indian subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia due to which of the following factors?
(a) The Tropic of Cancer
(b) The surrounding seas
(c) The Himalayas
(d) Ocean currents

21. Which of the following atmospheric conditions govern the climate and associated weather conditions in India?
(a) Pressure and surface winds
(b) Upper air circulation
(c) Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones
(d) All the above

22. Which of the following winds brings widespread rainfall over the mainland of India?
(a) Northeasterly
(b) Westerlies
(c) Southwest monsoon winds
(d) Sea breeze

23. Which of the following is a component of upper air circulation?
(a) North-easterlies
(b) Jet stream
(c) South-west monsoon
(d) Kal Baishakhi

24. From which of the following pressure belts do the north-easterly trade winds originate?
(a) Equatorial low pressure belt
(b) Subtropical high pressure belt of the Northern Hemisphere
(c) Subtropical high pressure belt of the Southern Hemisphere
(d) Temperate low pressure belt of the Northern Hemisphere

25. Due to which of the following reasons is the southwest monsoons rain bearing winds?
(a) They blow from low pressure area of north-eastern India towards the seas
(b) They are seasonal winds
(c) They blow over warm Indian Ocean and gather moisture
(d) They strike the Himalayas

26. Which of the following prevents the southwest monsoon winds from escaping from India?
(a) The surrounding seas
(b) The Himalayas
(c) Low pressure over Central Asia
(d) The Indian deserts

27. The word monsoon is derived from a word which literally means which of the following?
(a) Seasons
(b) Wind pattern
(c) Change
(d) Mausumbi

28. In which of the following stations of India's mainland do the monsoons arrive first?
(a) Thiruvananthapuram
(b) Kolkata
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi

29. By which of the following dates do southern parts of our islands receive their first monsoon showers?
(a) First week of April
(b) First week of May
(c) First week of June
(d) Mid-October

30. Which of the following stations of India experiences snowfall in winter?
(a) Aurangabad
(b) Guwahati
(c) Ooty
(d) Srinagar

31. Which of the following causes rainfall in West Bengal during the hot weather season?
(a) Mango showers
(b) Kal Baishakhi
(c) Southwest monsoon
(d) Retreating Monsoon

32. In which month the transition season changes the hot rainy season to dry winter season?
(a) December to February
(b) February to March
(c) June to July
(d) October to November

33. The term monsoon is originated from?
(a) German
(b) Hindi
(c) Latin
(d) Arabic

34. Kal Baisakhi is associated with
(a) Punjab
(b) Kashmir
(c) Karnataka
(d) Bengal

35. The peninsular part of India experiences peak summers earlier than northern India because:
(a) There is less rainfall in the peninsula during that time.
(b) Cold waves from Central Asia sweeps through the northern plains during the time.
(c) Due to northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward
(d) Clouds do not form in those months

36. Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh coasts are frequented by cyclones because
(a) The level coastline makes the cyclones penetrate these areas earlier
(b) These areas are close to a volcano
(c) Low pressure conditions in northwest India lead to the creation of depression over Andaman Sea
(d) Heavy rainfall in these parts encourage strong wind conditions

37. Mango showers occur in which one of the following group of two states?
(a) Bihar and West Bengal
(b) Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh
(c) Karnataka and Kerala
(d) Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh

38. Which is the coldest place in India?
(a) Drass
(b) Srinagar
(c) Shillong
(d) Bikaner

39. Which area is not an area of low precipitation?
(a) Western Rajasthan and Gujarat
(b) Leh in Jammu and Kashmir
(c) Deccan plateau
(d) Assam

40. In winter the western cyclonic disturbances originate from which sea?
(a) Mediterranean Sea
(b) Indian Ocean
(c) Caspian Sea
(d) Arabian Sea

41. Which one of the following states suffers from loo?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Gujarat
(d) None of these

1. (d) Altitude
2. (c) Climate
3. (b) State of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time
4. (a) Weather
5. (b) Drass
6. (d) Jaisalmer
7. (a) Shillong
8. (b) Leh
9. (c) June to September
10. (d) October to November
11. (b) Jodhpur
12. (c) Thiruvananthapuram
13. (a) Assam
14. (b) Temperature
15. (d) All the above
16. (c) Mussoorie
17. (d) Delhi
18. (a) It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats
19. (b) Tropic of Cancer
20. (c) The Himalayas
21. (d) All the above
22. (c) Southwest monsoon winds
23. (b) Jet stream
24. (b) Subtropical high pressure belt of the Northern Hemisphere
25. (c) They blow over warm Indian Ocean and gather moisture
26. (b) The Himalayas
27. (a) Seasons
28. (a) Thiruvananthapuram
29. (a) First week of April
30. (d) Srinagar
31. (b) Kal Baishakhi
32. (d) October to November
33. (d) Arabic
34. (d) Bengal
35. (c) Due to northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward
36. (c) Low pressure conditions in northwest India lead to the creation of depression over Andaman Sea
37. (c) Karnataka and Kerala
38. (a) Drass
39. (d) Assam
40. (a) Mediterranean Sea
41. (c) Gujarat


Q.1: Give reasons as to why,
(i) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.
(ii) The Tamilnadu coast receives winter rainfall.
(iii) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.
(iv) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.
(i) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months starting from June to September. Because, during these four months, the rain-bearing winds called the South-West Monsoons, blow northwards in two streams from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These winds blow from the oceanic high pressure areas towards the low pressure areas of land and make a heavy rainfall.
Winds blowing from the Arabian Sea cause heavy rainfall exceeding 300 cm along the Western Ghats. Winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal cause heavy rainfall in the hills of Assam, Meghalaya, Mawsynram.

(ii) In winter there is a high pressure on the Indian mainland while the pressure over the Indian Ocean remains low then. So, winds start blowing from Indian mainland towards the sea in winter. These winds are called retreating monsoons which blow in the months of October and November from the land towards the sea from northeast direction.
When these dry winds cross over the Bay of Bengal, they pick up moisture and when they strike against the Eastern Ghats they cause heavy rain on the east coast of India. Hence, southern part of east coast of India or the Tamil Nadu coast receives more rain during the winter months from October to November.

(iii) In India a gradual climatic transition from hot rainy season to dry winter season takes place during the months of October and November. In the later half of October, temperature starts falling rapidly especially in North India and the low pressure conditions starts shifting towards the Bay of Bengal by November. This shift causes cyclonic depression in the Andaman Sea. These tropical cyclones cause heavy and wide-spread rains on the Eastern Coasts of India. so they often become destructive and the densely populated deltas of the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri are frequently struck by these cyclones causing heavy damage to life and property every year.

(iv) Drought in Rajasthan and Gujarat: There is often low rain in Rajasthan (Thar Desert) and Gujarat because there is no relief or obstruction here to check the monsoons coming from the Arabian Sea. The Aravalli Hills lie parallel to the direction of the monsoons as such the monsoons bypass Rajasthan and Gujarat unobstructed and so, without giving any rain. Moreover, in the summer the temperature of the Thar Dessert or Western Rajasthan is so high that the monsoon winds that pass over this region get dried and unable to cause any rain.
Drought in the Leeward side of Western Ghats: There is often low rainfall in the Leeward side of Western Ghats because that area comes under the rain shadow area.

Q.2: What is an ‘Equable Climate’? Give example.
Ans: Equable Climate:
Equable climate is one which is neither too hot in summer nor too cold in winter. The coastal regions, influenced by the cool sea breeze are known for their equable or moderate climate. Hence the climate of coastal regions is known as Equable Climate.

Q.3: What is ‘Extreme Climate’? Give examples.
Ans: Extreme Climate:
The climate in which the summer is extremely hot and winter is too cold, is known as Extreme Climate, also known as Continentality. This type of climate is found in the arid regions of Rajasthan, South-west Punjab.
Continentality increases with increase in distance of a place from sea.

Q.4: What is ‘Rain Shadow’?
Ans: Rain Shadow:
That side of the mountain which does not get much rain is known as rain shadow. The winds after crossing the summits of the mountains descend along the slopes on the other side of the mountains. During this process the descending winds get warmed up and dry. The other reason is that the moist wind may not cross over the other side of the mountains which are too high as is the case with the Himalayas which render Tibet as dry region.

Q.5: What are the elements of Weather and Climate?
Ans: The basic elements of both weather and climate are same –
Winds and
Cloudiness or Sunshine

Q.6: Which place in India records the highest rainfall in the world?
Ans: Mawsynram

Q.7: Which part of India experiences the highest range of temperature in a day?
Ans: Thar Dessert in Rajasthan.

Q.8: Name the season in which Eastern Coast (Coromondal) receives rainfall.
Ans: Winter season.

Q.9: What are Jet Streams?
Ans: Jet Streams:
Jet Streams are fast blowing westerly winds that blow in a narrow zone in high altitudes of above 1200 meter in the troposphere. A number of separate Jet streams have been identified with their speeds varying from 110 km/hr to 184 km/hr.

Q.10: What are the reasons behind the disasters like flood, cyclones etc. along the coastal regions of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh?
Ans: The cyclonic disturbances affecting the coastal belts of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh occur due to the tropical cyclones during the monsoons as well as in October – November.
During monsoons theses disturbances are caused by tropical cyclones which are a part of easterly flow.

During October – November with the apparent movement of Sun towards the South, the low pressure trough, over the Northern plains, is shifted towards the Bay of Bengal. This shift is associated with occurrence of cyclonic depressions which originated over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones while crossing the Eastern Coasts cause heavy and wide-spread rainfall. Sometimes these tropical cyclones arrive at the coasts of Orissa, Andhra, West Bengal and Bangladesh and cause great danger to life and property.

Q.11: Why Chennai has more rains only after the fury of the monsoons is over in most parts of the country?
Ans: There are several factors involved in Chennai weather patterns, all because of its geographical location. Chennai is located in the thermal equator area, which means it is much hotter at certain times of the year than other because the sun shines more directly on it at these times. The N.E. monsoons bring the most rains in mid September-December. Thermal currents are constantly lifting moist air from the ocean and Bay of Bengal. This NE flow of air cools these currents and cause significant rain not evident in other parts of India. Add to this that cyclonic disturbances in the Bay of Bengal can acerbate the weather situation. In short, the weather in Chennai is like it is because Chennai is where it is.

Q.12: Write short notes on:
(a) Loo
(b) Kaal Baisakhi
(c) Mango Shower
(d) Mahawat
(a) Loo: These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during a day over the North and North-Western India. Direct exposure to these winds may even prove to be fatal.

(b) Kaal Baisakhi: During the months of April and May the localized thunderstorms associated with violent winds, torrential rains often accompanied by hail are known as the Kaal Baisakhi. This term is more popular in West Bengal.

(c) Mango Shower: Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common especially, in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to “mango showers”.

(d) Mahawat: The total amount of rainfall over Northern plains during winter is locally known as ‘Mahawat’. It is important for the cultivation of the Rabi crops.

Notes on Climate | MCQs & Q&A | CLSS 09 | GEOGRAPHY | CHAPTER 04 | CLIMATE


  1. explain briefly about advancing monsoon

    1. Hi Varnika!!
      Here goes your answer...
      Advancing Monsoon- A phenomenon associated with the monsoon is its tendency to have ‘breaks’ in rainfall which is attributed to the variations in temperature and pressure gradient. That causes its wet and dry spells. These breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. For various reasons, the trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward, which determines the spatial distribution of rainfall. When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over the plains, rainfall is good in these parts. On the other hand, whenever the axis shifts closer to the Himalayas, there are longer dry spells in the plains and widespread rain occur in the mountainous catchments areas of the Himalayan Rivers. The depressions follow the axis of the “monsoon trough of low pressure”. Thus, the variations in temperature and pressure cause irregularity in its arrival and retreat. The southwest monsoon advances causing heavy rainfall over the subcontinent. It is very important for the agriculture of the country which is largely dependent on rainfall. It lasts from June to September.

  2. Can u explain me about the indian monsoon


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