Tuesday, 29 January 2013

Notes on Rise Of Nationalism in Europe | MCQs & Q&A

Questions-Answers of The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

CLASS 10 | HISTORY | CBSE | MCQs | Q&A


Notes on The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu a French artist prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republic. During 19th century nationalism emerged forcing many changes in Political and mental world of Europe.

The French Revolution and the Idea of Nation:
(1) There was a growth of nationalism in France
(2) Various measures and practices were introduced to create a sense of collective identity among the people of France.
(3) Europe saw the Rise of a great leader Napoleon and his reforms. Revolutionaries helped other peoples of Europe to become nations.

The rise of Nationalism in Europe:
(1) Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdoms - duchies and cantons. These divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
(2) Industrialization began in England, a working class and liberalism emerged.
(3) After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government followed the spirit of conservations. Conservative regimes were autocratic. Revolutionaries were fighting for liberty and freedom. Giuseppe Mazzini's "Young Italy" was formed.



The age of Revolution (1830- 48)
Liberalism and Nationalism, occurrence of revolutions in Brussels and Greece and development of cultural movement in Europe, Hunger Hardship and Popular revolt, Demand for constitutionalism and national unification. Rights for women.
Results-Frankfurt Parliament (May 1848).

Visualizing the Nation:
Nations were portrayed as female Figures such as Marianne (France) and Germania (Germany)

Nationalism and Imperialism:
Last quarter of the 19th century nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends; intolerance in Balkan regions became the sense of big power of rivalry for owing to World War I.


Multiple Choice Questions of Rise of Nationalism in Europe



1. Which one of the following was not a part of the concept of nation-state?

(a) Clearly defined boundary

(b) National identity based on culture and history

(c) Sovereignty

(d) Freedom from monarchy


2. Which of the following were not introduced by French revolution?

(a) Universal right of a man

(b) Constitution and equality before law

(c) Participative administration and election

(d) Democracy and universal Suffrage


3. On the pretext of helping people of Europe to become nations, France plundered neighboring territories. Which of the following faced French aggression during 1790?

(a) Holland, Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw

(b) Holland, Switzerland, Austria, Prussia, Macedonia, Croatia

(c) Switzerland, Poland, Macedonia, Croatia, Sardinia

(d) Spain, Holland, Switzerland, Poland, Prussia, Austria


4. Civil code of 1804, enforced throughout the French territories

(a) Abolished privileges based on birth

(b) Established equality before law

(c) Secured right to property

(d) All the above


5. Napoleon’s invasions were resented in several countries due to

(a) Increased taxes, censorship and forced conscription into army

(b) Poor administration, restricted trade, language issues

(c) Dominance of aristocracy and army in administration

(d) Growth of the feeling of nationalism


6. Which of the following were parts of Hapsburg Empire?

(a) Austria-Hungary, Bohemia, Lombardy, Venetia

(b) Galicia, Carniola, Bohemia, Lombardy, Venetia

(c) Sudetenland, Austria-Hungary, Lombardy, Venetia

(d) Croatia, Sardinia, Greece, Poland, Austria-Hungary


7. During Eighteenth century which language was spoken by the aristocrats in Europe?

(a) English

(b) French

(c) Greek

(d) Dutch


8. Liberal nationalism, which dominated Europe in early nineteenth century supported

(a) Personal freedom

(b) Abolishing privileges of aristocracy and clergy

(c) Demand for constitution

(d) All of these


9. Which of the following was not a demand of the liberals?

(a) Representative Government

(b) Universal suffrage

(c) Inviolability of private property

(d) Freedom of Markets


10. Zollverein, formed by Prussia and joined by many of the German states was a

(a) German army

(b) German police

(c) Custom union

(d) Trade union


11. Which of the following statements about economic nationalism are true?

(a) It was promoted by liberal nationalists

(b) It was supported by the middle class

(c) It was supported by Napoleon

(d) None of these


12. The conservatives were of the opinion that

(a) Pre-revolution administration should be re-established

(b) Monarchy and churches should be preserved

(c) Feudalism should be restored

(d) Monarchies were dangerous for nation-state


13. The European powers that defeated Napoleon included

(a) Britain and Russia

(b) Prussia and Austria

(c) France and Netherlands

(d) Both (a) and (b)


14. After the defeat of Napoleon a congress was held in Vienna in which Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria participated. Who hosted this meet?

(a) Metternich

(b) Bismarck

(c) Garibaldi

(d) Mazzini


15. After the defeat of Napoleon, which dynasty was restored in France?

(a) Hapsburg

(b) Ottoman

(c) Bourbon

(d) None of these


16. Johan Gottfried, a German philosopher, believed that the true German culture was to be discovered

(a) In classical German literature

(b) Among the common people

(c) In fairy tales

(d) In Indian literature


17. After Napoleon’s defeat, the territories of Poland were distributed among

(a) Russia, Prussia and Austria

(b) Austria, England and Prussia

(c) France, England and Prussia

(d) England, Prussia and Russia


18. After the Vienna Congress, a number of Polish priests were sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities for

(a) Bringing religious reform in Siberia

(b) Not preaching in Russian language

(c) Opposing constitutional reforms

(d) Holding secret meetings


19. Paris witnessed an upheaval in 1848 which forced monarch Louis Philippe to leave the city. The unrest was caused by

(a) Tax rise

(b) Food shortage and unemployment

(c) Industrial crisis

(d) Drain of wealth


20. Freidrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia rejected the terms of the Frankfurt Parliament because

(a) The constitution made by the parliament wanted the monarch to become a subject to a parliament

(b) The parliament did not have the support of the aristocracy and military heads

(c) The members of the parliament were not elected representatives of German people

(d) The parliament did not have women representatives


21. During the Frankfurt Parliament held in St. Paul church on 18 May 1848, women were allowed to

(a) Vote

(b) Participate in drafting constitution

(c) Stand in the visitor’s gallery

(d) They were not allowed to enter the premises


22. The unification of Germany took place in 1871 under the leadership of

(a) Kaiser William I and his chief minister Otto von Bismarck

(b) Monarch Weilhelm IV and his chief minister Garibaldi

(c) Bismarck and Garibaldi

(d) Mazzini and Garibaldi


23. Who formed Young Italy for unification of his country?

(a) Giuseppe Garibaldi

(b) Count Cavour

(c) Giuseppe Mazzini

(d) Victor Emmanuel


24. Who succeeded in gathering French support for Italy for defeating Austria in 1859?

(a) Victor Emmanuel II

(b) Count Cavour

(c) Giuseppe Mazzini

(d) Giuseppe Garibaldi


25. Who led the Italian army against the Spanish rulers of the kingdom of two Sicillies in 1960?

(a) Bismarck

(b) Cavour

(c) Garibaldi

(d) Mazzini


26. Which among the following is known as the Glorious Revolution in the history of Europe?

(a) The British Revolution of 1688

(b) The unification of Germany in 1871

(c) The unification of Italy in 1860

(d) The Greek struggle for independence, 1821


27. Who was the king of England during the Glorious Revolution?

(a) James II

(b) William IV

(c) Charles I

(d) Henry III


28. The convention parliament of England decided the following after the Glorious Revolution

(a) James’s daughter Marry II and her husband William III would jointly rule the country

(b) That the parliament would set out the Bill of Rights

(c) The Monarch would be a subject to a parliament

(d) All of these


29. United Kingdom of Great Britain came into existence in 1770 after

(a) Scotland was merged into England

(b) Ireland was merged into England

(c) The Welch population was given voting rights

(d) The Union Jack was introduced


30. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in

(a) 1717

(b) 1801

(c) 1866

(d) 1896



Q.31 Who was Frederic Sorrieu?

(a) A Philosopher

(b) A Painter

(c) A Politician

(d) A Revolutionary


Q.32 Which of the following is true with reference to Romanticism?

(a) Concept of government by consent

(b) Freedom for the individual

(c) Cultural movement

(d)Freedom of markets



Q.33 What was the basic philosophy of the conservatives?

(a) They opposed monarchial forms.

(b) They were the supporters of democracy

(c) They wanted to glorify folk art and vernacular language

(d) They stressed the importance of tradition and established institutions and customs.

Q.34 Who was count Cavour?

(a) The chief Minister of Italy

(b) Revolutionary of Germany

(c) A catholic missionary

(d) The chancellor of Germany


Q.35 Which of the following state lead the unification of Germany?

(a) Bavaria

(b) Prussia

(c) Rhineland

(d) Hanover


Q.36 Who hosted the congress of Vienna in 1815?

(a) Cavour

(b) King Victor Emmanuel

(c) Bismarck

(d) Duke Metternich

 
Q.37 What was the main objective of the treaty of Vienna of 1815?

(a) To undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic war.

(b) To plan the unification of Germany

(c) To restore the democracy in Europe.

(d) To overthrow the Bourbon dynasty


Q.38 which of the following treaty recognized Greece as an independent nation?

(a) Treaty of Versailles

(b) Treaty of Constantinople

(c) Treaty of Frankfurt

(d) Treaty of Vienna


Q.39 At which of the following places was the Frankfurt assembly convened?

(a) At the palace of Prussia

(b) At the hall of Mirrors in palace of Versailles.

(c) At the church of St. Peter's

(d) At the church of St. Paul


Q.40 Who said “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”?

(a) Bismarck

(b) Cavour

(c) Victor Emmanuel II

(d) Metternich


Q.41 Who among the following was proclaimed the first king of united Italy?

(a) King George II

(b) Victor Emmanuel II

(c) Nicholas II

(d) Kaiser William I


Q.42 Among the following which section was not included in the European middle class?

(a) Industrialists

(b) Businessmen

(c) Nobles

(d) Professionals


Q.43 The term 'absolutist' is referred to:

(a) Monarchical government
(b) Abstract theory
(c) A vision
(d) None of these


Q.44 When and who prepared a series of four prints visualizing a world made up of 'democratic and social Republics'?

(a) 1804, Napoleon
(b) 1815, Duke Metternich
(c) 1848, Frederic Sorrieu
(d) None of these


Q.45 What do the saints, angels and Christ symbolize in the Utopian vision?

(a) Equality among people
(b) Fraternity among nations
(c) Freedom of nations
(d) Resentment against nations


Q.46 What did the Napoleonic Code of 1804 spell out?

(a) Equality before law
(b) Right to property
(c) Wiping out privileges by birth
(d) All of the above


Q.47 What seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes in Europe?

(a) Forced conscription into French armies
(b) Increased prices
(c) Movement and exchange of goods
(d) Laws that was not uniform


Q.48 When did Napoleon invade Italy?

(a) 1821
(b) 1905
(c) 1797
(d) 1795


Q.49 What territories did the Hapsburg Empire rule over?

(a) Austria
(b) Romania
(c) Hungary
(d) Both (a) and (c)


Q.50 In revolutionary France, who were granted exclusive rights to vote?

(a) All women
(b) Property-owning men
(c) Property-owning women
(d) All men


Q.51 A merchant traveling from Hamburg to Nuremberg, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had to pass through how many customs barriers to sell his goods?

(a) 20
(b) 10
(c) 9
(d) 11


Q.52 What was viewed as obstacle to economic change and growth by new commercial classes?

(a) Absence of railways
(b) Limited suffrage
(c) Customs duties
(d) Reduced status of women


Q.53 What led to the abolishing of the tariff barriers in the German-speaking regions of Europe and the reduction of currencies?

(a) Formation of the Customs Union
(b) Formation of traditional institutions
(c) Abolition of feudalism
(d) State power


Q.54 Why was the Treaty of Vienna drawn up in 1815?

(a) To abolish tariff barriers
(b) To restore the monarchies
(c) To divide the German Confederation of 39 states
(d) None of these


Q.55 Why was the kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, set up in the North?

(a) To control censorship laws
(b) To curb government activities
(c) To prevent French expansion
(d) Both a and b


Q.56 When were the 'Conservatives Regimes' set up?

(a) 1830
(b) 1820
(c) 1815
(d) 1832


Q.57 What major issue was criticized against by the liberal nationalists?

(a) Censorship laws to control the press
(b) Preservation of the Church
(c) A modern army
(d) Efficient bureaucracy


Q.58 Name the Italian revolutionary from Genoa.

(a) Metternich
(b) Johann Gottfried
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) None of these


Q.59 Who said, "When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold"?

(a) Lord Byron
(b) T S Eliot
(c) Metternich
(d) Giuseppe


Q.60 What marked Greece as an independent nation?

(a) Treaty of Constantinople, 1832
(b) Treaty of Vienna, 1815
(c) Treaty of Versailles, 1871
(d) None of these


Q.61 How did Karol Kurpinski celebrate the national struggle?

(a) Operas
(b) Plays
(c) Books
(d) Poetry


Q.62 What was the result of Polish being used as the medium of instruction for preaching in all Church gatherings, in late eighteenth century?

(a) Priests and bishops were jailed
(b) Followers were tortured
(c) Preachers were forced to preach in Russian
(d) Followers were sent to Siberia


Q.63 What did weavers in Silesia, in 1845, revolt against?

(a) Bad quality raw material
(b) Insufficient supply of raw material
(c) Contractors who didn't pay them enough
(d) None of these


Q.64 Women were admitted in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, but only as:

(a) Opposition
(b) Waitresses
(c) Guards
(d) Observers


Q.65 Who were the 'Junkers'?

(a) Soldiers
(b) Large landowners
(c) Aristocracy
(d) Weavers


Q.66 What was 'Young Italy'?

(a) Vision of Italy
(b) Secret society
(c) National anthem of Italy
(d) None of these


Q.67 Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy, in 1861?

(a) Giuseppe Garibaldi
(b) Victor Emmanuel II
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Cavour


Q.68 Name the act which resulted in the formation of the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain'.

(a) The Act of Union, 1707
(b) Tax Reform Act, 1784
(c) Commutation Act, 1784
(d) None of these


Q.69 What was the famous expedition carried out by Giuseppe Garibaldi called?

(a) Young Europe in Berne
(b) Young Italy in Marseilles
(c) Expedition of the Thousand to South Italy
(d) None of these


Q.70 What were the contributions of the Grimm Brothers in nation-building?

(a) Fairytales
(b) Folk dances
(c) Operas
(d) Music


Q.71 What is an "allegory'?

(a) Idealistic state
(b) Abstract idea
(c) Art form
(d) Song


Q.72 The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe, after 1871, was an area called:

(a) Ottoman
(b) Prussia
(c) Balkans
(d) Macedonia



CHECK YOUR ANSWERS

1. (d) Freedom from monarchy

2. (d) Democracy and universal Suffrage

3. (a) Holland, Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw

4. (d) All the above

5. (a) Increased taxes, censorship and forced conscription into army

6. (d) Croatia, Sardinia, Greece, Poland, Austria-Hungary

7. (b) French

8. (d) All of these

9. (b) Universal suffrage

10. (c) Custom union

11. (b) It was supported by the middle class

12. (b) Monarchy and churches should be preserved

13. (d) Both (a) and (b)

14. (a) Metternich

15. (c) Bourbon

16. (b) Among the common people

17. (a) Russia, Prussia and Austria

18. (b) Not preaching in Russian language

19. (a) Tax rise

20. (a) The constitution made by the parliament wanted the monarch to become a subject to a parliament

21. (c) Stand in the visitor’s gallery

22. (a) Kaiser William I and his chief minister Otto von Bismarck

23. (c) Giuseppe Mazzini

24. (b) Count Cavour

25. (c) Garibaldi

26. (a) The British Revolution of 1688

27. (a) James II

28. (d) All of these

29. (a) Scotland was merged into England

30. (b) 1801

31. (b) A Painter

32. (c) Cultural movement

33. (d) They stressed the importance of tradition and established institutions and customs.

34. (a) The chief Minister of Italy

35. (b) Prussia

36. (d) Duke Metternich

37. (a) To undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic war.

38. (b) Treaty of Constantinople

39. (d) At the church of St. Paul

40. (d) Metternich

41. (b) Victor Emmanuel II

42. (c) Nobles
43. (a) Monarchical government
44. (c) 1848, Frederic Sorrieu
45. (b) Fraternity among nations
46. (d) All of the above
47. (a) Forced conscription into French armies
48. (c) 1797
49. (d) Both (a) and (c)
50. (b) Property-owning men
51. (d) 11
52. (c) Customs duties
53. (a) Formation of the Customs Union
54. (b) To restore the monarchies
55. (c) To prevent French expansion
56. (c) 1815
57. (a) Censorship laws to control the press
58. (c) Giuseppe Mazzini
59. (c) Metternich
60. (a) Treaty of Constantinople, 1832
61. (a) Operas
62. (a) Priests and bishops were jailed
63. (c) Contractors who didn't pay them enough
64. (d) Observers
65. (b) Large landowners
66. (b) Secret society
67. (b) Victor Emmanuel II
68. (a) The Act of Union, 1707
69. (c) Expedition of the Thousand to South Italy
70. (a) Fairy tales
71. (b) Abstract idea
72. (c) Balkans


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Question Answer of Rise of Nationalism in Europe


Q.1 Explain the concept of a nation state.

Ans: Most of the citizens of a nation state develop a common identity. They share history, culture & language. This commonness came as a result of great struggle by the leaders and the common people.


Q.2 Explain the measures and practices creating sense of collective identity among the people of France.

Ans: The ideas of the fatherland (la patrie), the citizen (la citoyen) and a new French flag emphasized the nation of a united community. A new French flag, new hymns were composed, a centralized administrative system was set up, and internal customs duties were abolished.


Q.3 Explain the consequences of the Vienna congress.

Ans: The consequences of the Vienna congress were as follows:

The bourbon dynasty was restored in France; a number of states were set up on the boundaries of France. Prussia was given important new territories. Austria got control of northern Italy. Russia was given part of Poland.


Q.4 Why the 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe?

Ans: The years of 1830s saw a great increase in population in Europe. One could only see unemployment migration, price rise, and stiff competition in the market and bad condition of peasants.


Q.5 Why did national tensions emerge in the Balkan?

Ans: Ethnic variation spread a feeling of nationalism in the Balkan. Ottoman Empire disintegrated. They started claiming of independence by using history to prove that they had once been independent. Area of intense conflict, mutual jealousy matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.


Q.6 Explain the Greek war of Independence.

Ans: Since the 15th century Greece had been a part of Ottoman Empire. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparkled off a struggle for independence. Poets and artists mobilized public opinion to support its struggle. At last the treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.


Q.7 How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Ans: In Britain, in earlier times the ethnic groups consisted of the English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. They had their own culture and political tradition. The English parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688. The act of union made Scotland come under England. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. The symbols of New Britain, the British flag, the national anthem and the English language were actively promoted.


Long Answer Questions


Q.1 Describe the process by which Germany was unified?

Ans- By 1848, the popular effort failed to succeed in installing constitutional monarch in Germany. There after the task for unification of Germany was taken over by Prussia and its chief minister Ottovon Bismarck followed a policy of "blood and Iron" and within a period of seven years three wars were fought with Demark, Austria and France. These states were defeated. In January 1871 the process of unification of Germany was completed and the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor.


Q.2 Describe the process of unification of Italy.

Ans- During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini decided to make a programme to unite Italy and formed a society called “Young Italy”. After earlier failures King Victor Emmanuel II, he took to unify the Italian states through war. He got the whole hearted support of Minister Cavour and made a tactful alliance with France and defeated Austrian forces in 1859. Now he was able to secure the support of Garibaldi. In 1860 Garibaldi led the famous expedition to South Italy and freed the states from Bourbon rulers. In 1861, before the completion of unification, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.


Q.3 Discuss the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolution, which helped in creating a sense of collective identity among the French people.

Ans: The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

a). The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
b). A French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
c). The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
d). New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of nation.
e). A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all the citizens within its territory.
f). Internal custom duties were abolished and uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
g). Regional dialects were discouraged and French became common language of the nation.


Q.4 Critically examine the achievements of Napoleon.

Ans: The achievements of Napoleon:
Achievements-
i). Napoleon introduced many reforms in the conquered territories.
ii). Though he is said to have destroyed democracy in France but in administrative field he incorporated many revolutionary principles to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
iii). The Civil Code of 1804- usually known as the Napoleonic Code- did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
iv). In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
v). In towns, the restrictions on the guilds were removed and transport and communication systems were improved.
vi). All these developments facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Failures-

i). The people in the conquered territories soon realised that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom.
ii). Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Q.5 State any three limitations of the Napoleonic Code.

Ans: Three limitations of the Napoleonic Code:
1. It provided limited suffrage. Men without property and women were excluded from the right to vote or get elected.
2. Women were reduced to the status of minor subject to authority of husband and father.
3. The administrative changes created a Confederation of 39 states with their own economic currency and system and were an obstacle to economic growth and exchange.


Q.6 Differentiate between liberals and conservatives.

Ans: The differences liberals and conservatives:
1. The liberals promoted the democratic ideas of the French Revolution like liberty, equality and Freedom of Press etc. but conservatives censored such ideas through laws.
2. The liberals advocated Democratic Government by putting an end to autocracy, election of representatives. The Conservatives wanted to restore and strengthen traditional institution of Political Power i.e. Monarchy
3. The liberals promoted revolutions to oppose monarchical forms and wanted to fight and freedom while the conservatives preferred gradual development to quick change.


Q.7 Briefly trace the History of the Unification of Germany.

Ans: The Unification of Germany:
1. At the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848, the liberals failed to unify Germany under a constitutional monarchy.
2. In the second stage, the rulers themselves made to unify Germany into a militaristic empire under Prussia. Prussia led the movement through its chief ministers Otto von Bismarck who was supported by the army and the bureaucracy.
3. Bismarck followed the policy of war called “Policy of Blood and Iron”. He successfully fought three wars over a period of 7 years and defeated Austria, Denmark and France.
4. The process of unification was completed in Jan 1871 with the proclamation of the Prussian King Wilhelm as the German Emperor of the New German Empire. He was crowned in the French Palace of Versailles. It was a victory over conservatives.


Q.8 Name the following -
(a). Austrian Chancellor who hosted the Vienna Congress.
Ans: Duke Metternich

(b). Italian Revolutionary who founded the secret society by the name of Young Italy.
Ans: Giuseppe Mazzini

(c). European governments were driven by this spirit after 1815.
Ans: Conservatism

(d). The treaty, which recognized the independence of Greece.
Ans: Constantinople

(e). A cultural movement, which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
Ans: Romanticism


Q.9: Write a note on:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek War of Independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
Ans:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini - He was a young revolutionary of Italy who played a significant in promoting the idea of a unified Italian state. He believed that God intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. At that time Italy was divided into a number of small states and kingdoms. During the 1830s, Mazzini tried to overthrow different monarchies and led a revolution to unify Italy. He also set up two secret revolutionary organizations, namely Young Italy and Young Europe. But the revolution failed and Mazzini was sent into exile. However, his ideas later inspired Cavour who ultimately unified in the second half of the 19th century.

(b) Count Camillo de Cavour - Of the seven states of Italy, only Sardinia - Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. When the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy, the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon this Italian state. King Victor Emmanuel II was its ruler and Cavour was the Chief Minister.
Cavour led the movement to unify the separate states of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. He had a powerful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped him to defeat the Austrian forces in 1859. Thus, in 1861, Italy was unified and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King of unified Italy.

(c) The Greek War of Independence - This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against Ottoman Empire. The Greek nationals got influenced by the idea of Liberal nationalism. In this war the Greeks were supported by the West European countries, while the poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, also participated in this war against Ottoman Empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.

(d) Frankfurt Parliament - The German middle class decided to vote for an all - German National Assembly in 1848, and hence came to Frankfurt. Around 1831 persons were elected. They comprised the National Assembly. The assembly decided to organize Frankfurt Parliament in the church of St. Paul. Thus, on 18th May, 1848 the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened. The assembly decided that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by Parliament, and offered this term to the Prussian King. But he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The parliament faced strong opposition from aristocracy and military. The Parliament was dominated by the middle class who resisted the demands of workers and artisans. As a result of this the middle class lost their mass support. Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with aristocracy, won over the liberal nationalist middle class and the assembly was forced to disband.
Therefore, the Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.

(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles - Women played a very significant role in the nationalist struggle all over the world. They led the movements, faced the tortures of police, stood by their male counterparts, spread the idea of liberal nationalism and also participated in the various revolutionary organizations. For example, we have studied how men and women participated equally in the movements of the French Revolution. Liberty is personified as a women and also liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. But in spite of their active participation in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights, right to vote etc. till the end of 19th century.


Q.10: What steps did French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Ans: The French revolutionaries took following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
(1) They introduced the ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citogen (the citizen).
(2) These ideas emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(3) They choose a new French flag, to replace the former royal standard.
(4) The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
(5) They composed new hymns, took oaths and commemorated martyrs, all in the name of nation.
(6) They established a centralized administrative system, which formulated uniform laws for all citizens.
(7) They adopted a uniform system of weights and measures and abolished internal custom duties.
(8) They promoted French over the regional dialects.
(9) They further declared that it was the mission and destiny of the French nation to liberate people of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other people of Europe to become nations.


Q.11: who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Ans: Marianne was the female allegory of French nation. Similarly, Germania was the female allegory of German nation.
They stood as personifications of ideals like ‘Liberty’ and ‘The Republic’. They were portrayed in such a way that it sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form and would instill a sense of nationality in the citizens of these countries.


Q.12: Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Ans: The liberal minded middle class of German Confederacy met in the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation. But they failed miserably. The parliament ended with monarchial, military and aristocratic triumph. Later on, the Chief Minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismark led the movement of unity of the German Confederacy. He organized the military wars and mobilized bureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states. He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which he won. This completed the process of German unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.


Q.13: What changes did Napoleon introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in territories ruled by him?

Ans: Napoleon introduced following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him:
1. He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with all privileges based on birth. It established equality before law and secured the right to property.
2. He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
3. In towns too, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
4. Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.
By introducing these changes Napoleon made the whole administrative system more rational and efficient.


SUGGESTED QUESTIONS (4 marks; 60-80 Words)

01. 'The initial enthusiasm towards the French armies soon turned to hostility'. Give reasons.

02. In Europe of min-eighteenth century there were no nation-states'. Comment.

03. How did revolutionary ideas spread to other countries?

04. Growth of Industrialisation changed the social and political equation in Europe. Discuss.

05. Answer the following:

(a) What was the Zolleverin?

(b) Under whose initiative was it formulated?

(c) What were its wider implications?

(6 Marks; 125 Words)

01. Metternich once remarked "When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold." Discuss this statement in reference to the July revolution of 1830.

02. Distinguish between Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.

03. Compare the positions on the question of women's rights voiced by the three writers cited. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?

04. Describe the 4 stages of unification of Germany.

05. Briefly trace the process of Italian unification.

06. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.

07. Give four important factors which led to the growth of nationalism in nineteenth century in Europe.

08. How has French artist Fredric visualized in his first print, of the aeries of 4 prints, his dream of a world made up of "democratic and secular republic". Explain.

09. Describe the cause of the Silesian Weavers uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.

10. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe? Justify the statement with 4 examples.

11. The Treaty if Vienna gave a setback to the process of nationalism. Justify the statement with examples.

12. Justify how the history of development of nationalism in England different from the rest of Europe.

13. The French Revolution signified the first clear expression of nationalism in France. Justify the statement.

14. Why do you think Metternich made the remark? When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold. Justify the statement in the light of July Revolution (1830).

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