MCQs & Questions and Answers of Pastoralists in the Modern World
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) of Pastoralists in the Modern World
|Notes on Pastoralits in the Modern World|
1. Name the Pastoral Nomads of Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Gujjar Bakarwals
2. Nomadic Pastoralists are People Who
(a) Live in one place
(b) Move from one area to another
(c) Move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living
(d) Gonds, Dhurwas and Bhatros are some nomadic pastoralists of India
3. Name the significant feature of nomadic pastoralists
(a) Cycle of seasonal movement
(b) Shifting cultivation
(c) Live on the edges of forests
(d) Continuously on the move
(a) Thick forests
(b) Semi-arid region
(c) Dry forested area
(d) Vast meadows
5. The cyclical movement of mountain pastoralists is defined by
(a) Cold and snow
(b) Dry season
(c) Onset of monsoons
(d) Prospects of trade
6. Bugyals are
(a) Dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun
(b) Vast meadows in high mountains
(c) Semi-arid region in the Central Plateau of Maharashtra
(d) Swampy wet coastal tracts
7. Dhangars are pastoralists of
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(c) U.P. hills
8. Which of the following was not a reason for Konkani peasants welcoming the herders?
(a) Dhangar flocks fed on the stubble of the rabi crop
(b) They helped in kharif harvest
(c) Shepherds received supplies of rice
(d) They returned to the plateau with the onset of monsoons
9. The alternation of monsoon and dry season defined the rhythm of
(b) Gujjar Bakarwals
10. Pastoralists sustain by
(d) All of these
11. In which of the following states are Banjara's to be found?
(a) U.P., Punjab, Andhra Pradesh
(b) Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
(c) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka
(d) U.P., Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir
(a) Recount history of a family
(b) Recount history of a community
(c) Predict the future
(d) Train camels
13. Colonial state regarded grazing land as
(b) Habitat of wild
(d) Reserved land
14. Protected forests were
(a) forests which produced commercially viable timber
(b) Access to these forests was prohibited
(c) Pastoralists were granted grazing rights in these forests without preconditions
(d) Customary rights were granted to pastoralists subject to severe restrictions on their movements
15. Find the odd one out
(a) British officials were suspicious of nomadic people
(b) To colonial officers all grazing land appeared unproductive
(c) Nomadic population was easy to identify and control
(d) Nomadic were classified as criminal tribes
16. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in
17. What was the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists?
(a) Land tax
(b) Canal water tax
(c) Grazing tax
(d) Salt tax
18. The Maasais are cattle herders of
(c) South Africa
(d) East Africa
19. Which of the following constitute pastoral communities of Africa?
(a) Bedouins, Berbers, Boran, Maasai, Somali, Turkana
(b) Gollas, Kurumas, Kurubes, Dhangar, Gujjars, Gaddis
(c) Korava, Karacha, Yerukula
(d) Chena, Milpa, Lading Dhya, Penda
20. Which of the following was not a reason for Maasai loss of grazing lands?
(а) Imperial powers scramble for colonies
(b) White settlements
(c) Cultivated fields were converted into pasture lands
(d) Game reserves
21. The Serengeti National Park is located in
(c) South Africa
22. Maasai means
(b) My people
(d) My home
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1. (b) Gujjar Bakarwals
2. (c) Move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living
3. (a) Cycle of seasonal movement
4. (c) Dry forested area
5. (a) Cold and snow
6. (c) Semi-arid region in the Central Plateau of Maharashtra
7. (d) Maharashtra
8. (a) Dhangar flocks fed on the stubble of the rabi crop
9. (d) Gollas
10. (d) All of these
11. (b) Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
12. (b) Recount history of a community
13. (a) Wasteland
14. (d) Customary rights were granted to pastoralists subject to severe restrictions on their movements
15. (c) Nomadic population was easy to identify and control
16. (a) 1871
17. (c) Grazing tax
18. (d) East Africa
19. (a) Bedouins, Berbers, Boran, Maasai, Somali, Turkana
20. (c) Cultivated fields were converted into pasture lands
21. (c) South Africa
22. (c) Myland
Short Questions and Answers on Pastoralists in the Modern World
1. Name any four states/regions in India where pastoral nomad-ism is practised.
Ans: (i) Jammu and Kashmir,
(ii) Himachal Pradesh,
(iv) Uttar Pradesh,
2. Name any five important pastoral nomadic communities found in India in the mountains, plains, and plateau and desert regions.
Ans: (i) Mountains: Gujjars Bakarwala, Gaddi's.
(ii) Plains and Plateau: Dhangars, Banjaras.
(iii) Desert Region: Raikas.
3. Give names of any one pastoral community of
(i) Himachal Pradesh
(ii) Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans: (i) Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Shepherds
(ii) Jammu and Kashmir: Gujjar Bakarwals
4. Name the pastorial communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Ans: Pastoral communities that lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were:
(ii) Kurumas, and
5. What was the occupation of the pastoral communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh?
Ans: The pastoral communities of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka herded cattle, raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Of them the Kurumas and Kurubas lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land and indulged in a variety of petty trades.
6. Gujjar herders originally belong to which state?
Ans: The Gujjar herders originally came from the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In the 19th century search for pastures brought them to hills of Uttar Pradesh.
7. What is the pattern of migration of Gujjar herders?
Ans: The Gujjar herders in winters came down to the dry, forests of the bhabar and in summers they went up to the high meadows i.e., the bugyals.
8. Where the Banjaras found and what were their occupations?
Ans: Banjaras a well-known group of graziers were found in
(iv) Madhya Pradesh, and
They were nomadic and mainly graziers and sold plough, cattle, and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.
9. Who are Raikas, where are they found?
Ans: (i) Raikas are a nomadic community found in the deserts of Rajasthan.
(ii) They are pastoralists and cultivators.
10. Why are the Raika community both pastoralists and cultivators?
Ans: The uncertainty and meagre rainfall in the desert region leading to fluctuating harvests made the Raikas combine both cultivation and pastoralism as means of occupation.
11. Why did pastoral communities move from place to place?
Ans: Pastoral communities moved from place to place in search of pastures for their cattle.
12. Give any one change that occurred in Maasai society during colonial rule.
Ans: During colonial rule the traditional difference based on age between elders and warriors was disturbed and a new distinction between wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.
13. How did the British seek to administer the affairs of the Maasai?
Ans: To administer the Maasai the British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai. They were made responsible for tribal affairs and imposed restrictions on warfare and raids.
14. Give names of any two pastoral communities of Africa.
Ans: (i) Bedouins (ii) Berbers.
15. Give two factors for pastoral communities being nomadic.
Ans: Pastoral communities are nomadic because:
(i) It enables them to survive bad times and avoid crisis in difficult terrain.
(ii) Continuous movement is also because of exhaustion of pasture and there insurability.
16. What does the word Maasai mean? Where are they found?
Ans: The word Maasai means 'My People'. It is derived from the word 'Maa. Maasai's are found primarily in East Africa: 3,00,000 in Southern Kenya and 1,50,000 in Tanzania.
17. How did poor Maasai pastoralists survive war and famines?
Ans: During war, famines and other bad times the poor Maasai pastoralists searched for work in the towns as charcoal burners, at road and building construction sites to make a living.
18. Give names of one game reserve in (i) Kenya (ii) Tanzania.
Samburu National Park/Maasai Mara
19. What was the Grazing Act? Or why did the pastoralists hate the Grazing Act?
Ans: By the Grazing Act, the British levied tax on the pastoralists, on every animal they took to pastures to graze. It was hated by the impoverished pastoral community for it's was contrary to their customary rights.
20. Give one reason why the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act?
Ans: The British considered traders, craftsmen and pastoralists to be criminal by nature. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed so that they could identify and control these communities.
21. Define the term Pastoral Nomadism.
Ans: Pastoral Nomadism is a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals. Under this people do not live in one place but move from one place to another along with their animals in search of fresh grazing areas.
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONSQ1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Ans: Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another to adjust to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures is typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas, including the Bhotias, Sherpas and Kinnauris. When the pastures were exhausted or unusable in one place they move with their flock to new areas. This continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover, it prevented their overuse.
Q2. Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:
Ans: The law changed the lives of pastoralists in the following ways:
(i) Wasteland Rules - Wasteland Rules were enacted in various parts of the country. By these rules uncultivated land was taken over and given to select individuals. In most areas the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant decline of pastures and a problem for pastoralists.
(ii) Forests Acts - Forests Acts were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of Commercial importance. These acts changed the life of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. They were issued permits which monitored their entry and exit into forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the number of days and hours they could spend in the forests. The permit ruled their lives.
(iii) Criminal Tribes Act — The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. They wanted the rural population to live a settled life in villages. People who moved from place to place were looked upon with suspicion and regarded as criminals. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871 by which many nomadic communities were declared as criminal tribes. They were supposed to be criminal by nature and birth. Once this Act came into force, these communities were expected to live in notified village settlements.
They were not allowed to move out without permits. The village police kept a continuous watch on them.
(iv) Grazing Tax - Grazing Tax was imposed by the colonial government to expand its revenue income. Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. This right was now auctioned out to contractors. They extracted as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could. Later the government itself started collecting taxes. This created problems for the pastoralists who were harassed by tax collectors. It also became an economic burden on them.
Q3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Ans: The Maasais lost their grazing lands due to the following reasons :
(i) In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between the British Kenya and German Tanganyika. The best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement. The Maasai lost 60% of their pre-colonial lands.
(ii) From the late 18th century, the British colonial government in East Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasture lands were turned into cultivated fields.
(iii) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves. Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds.
The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within.
Q.4. There is many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Ans: There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Here are two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders —
(i) All uncultivated land was seen as wasteland by colonial powers. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. This land was brought under cultivation. In most areas the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists, so expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and a problem both for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai.
(ii) From the 19th century onwards, the colonial government started imposing restrictions on the pastoral communities. They were issued permits which allowed them to move out with their stock and it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.