Friday, 25 January 2013

Notes on Natural Vegetation and Wildlife | MCQs & Q&A

Questions-Answers of Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

CLASS 09 | NCERT | GEOGRAPHY | CHAPTER 05


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS OF NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE


Natural Vegetation and Wildlife-Class 09
1. Which of the following positions does India occupy in the world with regard to plant diversity?
(a) Fourth
(b) Sixth
(c) Tenth
(d) Twelfth

2. From the point of view of natural vegetation and wildlife, India belongs to which of the following categories?
(a) One of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world
(b) The richest wildlife zone in the world
(c) The country with the greatest forest cover
(d) A country lacking in biodiversity cover

3. Which one of the following is not included in the group of non-flowering plants?
(a) Ferns
(b) Orchids
(c) Algae
(d) Fungi

4. Which of the following types of vegetation does not belong to the category of natural vegetation?
(a) Forests
(b) Mangroves
(c) Horticulture
(d) Grasslands

5. Which of the following terms is used for the original plant cover of an area which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time?
(a) Natural vegetation
(b) Agriculture
(c) Gardens
(d) Plantations

6. Which of the following terms is used for a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and interference?
(a) Orchards
(b) Virgin vegetation
(c) Cultivated fields
(d) Plantations

7. Which of the following terms is used for plants which are at present part of natural vegetation but have originally come to India from abroad?
(a) Indigenous plants
(b) Endemic species
(c) Endangered plants
(d) Exotic plants

8. Which of the following terms is used for virgin vegetation which is purely Indian in origin?
(a) Endangered species
(b) Endemic species
(c) Exotic species
(d) Normal species

9. Which of the following terms is used to denote plants of a particular region or period?
(a) Ferns
(b) Flora
(c) Fauna
(d) None of the above

10. Which of the following terms is used to denote animal species of a particular region or period?
(a) Fern
(b) Flora
(c) Fauna
(d) None of these

11. Which of the following factors influence the type and distribution of natural vegetation?
(a) Landforms
(b) Soil
(c) Climate
(d) All the above

12. Which of the following types of vegetation is common in fertile, level lands?
(a) Forests
(b) Grasslands
(c) Mangroves
(d) Cultivated crops

13. Which of the following types of vegetation usually develops on undulating and rough terrains?
(a) Grasslands and woodlands
(b) Mangroves
(c) Cactus and thorny bushed
(d) Cultivated crops

14. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in the sandy soil of the desert?
(a) Coniferous trees
(b) Grasslands
(c) Cactus and thorny bushes
(d) Mangroves

15. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in wet, marshy soil?
(a) Grasslands
(b) Mangroves
(c) Cactus
(d) Alpine vegetation

16. The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by which of the climatic factors?
(a) Temperature
(b) Humidity
(c) Precipitation
(d) All the above

17. Due to which of the following reasons does the vegetation on the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the peninsula above the height of 915 metres change from tropical to subtropical, temperate and alpine vegetation?
(a) Soil
(b) High humidity
(c) Fall in temperature
(d) Very heavy rainfall

18. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in areas with mean annual average temperature of above 24°C?
(a) Tropical
(b) Subtropical
(c) Temperate
(d) Alpine

19. Which of the following types of vegetation zones is found in the higher reaches of the Himalayas with mean annual average temperature below 7°C?
(a) Tropical
(b) Subtropical
(c) Alpine
(d) Temperate

20. Trees grow faster in which of the following seasons?
(a) Winter
(b) Summer
(c) Rainy season
(d) Autumn

21. Why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation as compared to northern slopes of the same hills?
(a) On account of more exposure to sunlight
(b) On account of more precipitation
(c) On account of less exposure to colder winds
(d) All the above

22. Why are the western slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests and not the eastern slopes?
(a) On account of more precipitation
(b) On account of less exposure to cold winds
(c) On account of more exposure to sunlight
(d) All the above

23. Which of the following types of resources can forests be considered as?
(a) Exhaustible resources
(b) Non-renewable resources
(c) Renewable resources
(d) Abiotic resources

24. How do forests influence the climate of a place?
(a) Modify local climate
(b) Control wind force and temperature
(c) Cause rainfall
(d) All the above

25. By which of the following ways do forests control the soil cover of an area?
(a) Control soil erosion
(b) Provide humus to the soil
(c) Regulate stream flow
(d) All the above

26. Due to which of the following reasons has the vegetation of most of the areas been modified or replaced or degraded?
(a) Shelter to wildlife
(b) Human occupancy
(c) Soil erosion
(d) Change of climate

27. India’s natural vegetation has undergone many changes due to which of the following factors?
(a) Growing demands for cultivated land
(b) Development of industries and mining
(c) Overgrazing of pastures
(d) All the above

28. Which of the following states and union territories of India has the largest percentage of its area under forest cover?
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh

29. Which of the following states of India has the least percentage of its area under forest cover?
(a) Assam
(b) Punjab
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Sikkim

30. Which of the following states of India has the largest percentage of the area under forest cover?
(a) Maharashtra
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Nagaland
(d) Orissa

31. Ebony, mahogany and rosewood trees are grown in which type of the following forests?
(a) Deciduous forest
(b) Tropical rainforest
(c) Tropical thorn forest
(d) Coniferous forest

32. At which of the following places are Royal Bengal tigers found?
(a) Mahanadi delta
(b) Godawari delta
(c) Kaveri delta
(d) Sunderban delta

33. Moist tropical deciduous forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of India because:
(a) Most of the rivers are found in these parts.
(b) The soil is ideally suited for such activities
(c) These areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall
(d) There is commercial significance of such forests in these areas.

34. The yak, shaggy-horned wild ox and the Tibetan antelope are found in which one of the following regions?
(a) Tibet
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Ladakh

35. Which among the following natural vegetation is most predominant in India?
(a) Tropical deciduous forest
(b) Alpine forest
(c) Thorny bushes
(d) Mangrove forest

36. Which one of the following is the Biosphere Reserve of India?
(a) Gir
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Kanheri
(d) None of these

37. Where in India do flamingos migrate to nest in large numbers?
(a) Thar
(b) Rann of Kachchh
(c) Coastal areas
(d) Himalayas

38. Which forest is affected by tides in coastal areas?
(a) Alpine
(b) Coniferous
(c) Deciduous
(d) Mangroves

39. Dachigam in Jammu and Kashmir is a
(a) National Park
(b) Wildlife Sanctuary
(c) Bird Sanctuary
(d) Reserve Forest

40. Plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for long time, is termed as :
(a) Tundra vegetation
(b) Virgin vegetation
(c) Taiga plants
(d) None of the above

41. Which one of the following trees are found in tropical rainforests?
(a) Mahogany
(b) Teak
(c) Sal
(d) Peepal

42. Which parts of Himalayas are covered with dense forest?
(a) Northern
(b) Eastern
(c) Western
(d) Southern

43. How many types of plant species are found in India?
(a) About 45,000
(b) About 40,000
(c) About 47,000
(d) About 20,000

44. In which of the following states is Dachigam wildlife sanctuary located?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Punjab
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Uttarakhand

45. Which one of the following states does not have the Tropical deciduous forests?
(a) Jharkhand
(b) Western Orissa
(c) Chhattisgarh
(d) Rajasthan

46. Ebony, Mahogany and Rosewood trees are grown in which of the following forests?
(a) Coniferous forests
(b) Tropical rainforest
(c) Tropical thorn forest
(d) Deciduous forest

47. The elephants are found in the hot-wet forests of
(a) Punjab and Haryana
(b) Rajasthan and Gujarat
(c) West Bengal and Jharkhand
(d) Assam and Karnataka

48. Which of the following is not a important tree of tropical rainforest?
(a) Ebony
(b) Rosewood
(c) Mahogany
(d) Sandalwood

49. Which one of the following animals lives in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal?
(a) Tiger
(b) Lion
(c) One-horned Rhino
(d) Elephants

50. A very large ecosystem on land having distinct type of vegetation and wildlife is called
(a) Ecology
(b) Biome
(c) Biodiversity
(d) Biosphere reserve

51. Which medicinal plant has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties?
(a) Sarpagandha
(b) Neem
(c) Kachnar
(d) Babool

52. The Yak (ox) and the Bharal are found in
(a) Uttarakhand
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Ladakh

53. Silver fir is found in the following type of vegetation zone:
(a) Mangrove forests
(b) Thorn forests
(c) Montane
(d) Deciduous forest

54. Trees in a thorn forest are:
(a) Tall
(b) Dense
(c) Scattered
(d) None of these

55. Which is the natural habitat of the Indian lion?
(a) Sundarban delta in Bengal
(b) Gir forest in Gujarat
(c) Thorn forest in Rajasthan
(d) Decidious forest in Madhya Pradesh

56. Which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical evergreen

57. Which of the following trees is used for treating blood pressure?
(a) Jamun
(b) Tidal
(c) Neem
(d) Sarpagandha

58. Which of the following forests is found in heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats, island groups and upper parts of Assam?
(a) Tropical evergreen
(b) Tropical deciduous
(c) Mountain forest
(d) Tidal forests

59. Ebony and rosewood trees are found in the areas of rainfall:
(a) More than 200 cm
(b) More than 100 cm
(c) More than 70 cm
(d) Less than 50 cm

60. In which of the following parts of India evergreen forests are found?
(a) Assam
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Orissa
(d) Uttar Pradesh

61. Tropical rainforests grow well in areas receiving __________ rainfall.
(a) 200 cm
(b) 150 cm
(c) 100 cm
(d) 70 cm

62. Most widespread vegetation in India is
(a) Coniferous forests
(b) Tropical rainforests
(c) Tropical deciduous forests
(d) Mangrove forests

63. In which year Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in India?
(a) 1952
(b) 1962
(c) 1972
(d) 1982

64. Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona are the important trees of?
(a) Tropical deciduous forests
(b) Mangrove forests
(c) Tropical evergreen forests
(d) Montane forests

65. Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network bio-reserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Sunderbans
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi

66. Which of the following types of natural vegetation have originally come to India from abroad?
(a) Rare species
(b) Endemic Species
(c) Endangered species
(d) Exotic Species

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

1. (c) Tenth
2. (a) One of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world
3. (b) Orchids
4. (c) Horticulture
5. (a) Natural vegetation
6. (b) Virgin vegetation
7. (d) Exotic plants
8. (b) Endemic species
9. (b) Flora
10. (c) Fauna
11. (d) All the above
12. (d) Cultivated crops
13. (a) Grasslands and woodlands
14. (c) Cactus and thorny bushes
15. (b) Mangroves
16. (d) All the above
17. (c) Fall in temperature
18. (a) Tropical
19. (c) Alpine
20. (b) Summer
21. (d) All the above
22. (a) On account of more precipitation
23. (c) Renewable resources
24. (d) All the above
25. (d) All the above
26. (b) Human occupancy
27. (d) All the above
28. (a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
29. (b) Punjab
30. (c) Nagaland
31. (b) Tropical rainforest
32. (d) Sunderban delta
33. (c) These areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall
34. (d) Ladakh
35. (a) Tropical deciduous forest
36. (b) Nilgiri
37. (b) Rann of Kachchh
38. (d) Mangroves
39. (b) Wildlife Sanctuary
40. (b) Virgin vegetation
41. (a) Mahogany
42. (d) Southern
43. (c) About 47,000
44. (a) Jammu and Kashmir
45. (d) Rajasthan
46. (b) Tropical rainforest
47. (d) Assam and Karnataka
48. (d) Sandalwood
49. (c) One-horned Rhino
50. (b) Biome
51. (b) Neem
52. (d) Ladakh
53. (c) Montane
54. (c) Scattered
55. (b) Gir forest in Gujarat
56. (d) Tropical evergreen
57. (d) Sarpagandha
58. (a) Tropical evergreen
59. (a) More than 200 cm
60. (a) Assam
61. (a) 200 cm
62. (c) Tropical deciduous forests
63. (c) 1972
64. (c) Tropical evergreen forests
65. (a) Manas
66. (d) Exotic Species

QUESTIONS-ANSWERS OF NCERT TEXTBOOK

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE


1: Choose the right answer from the alternatives given below:
(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
a. Tundra
b. Tidal
c. Himalayan
d. Tropical Evergreen

(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
a. 100 cm
b. 50 cm
c. 70 cm
d. less than 50 cm

(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
a. Punjab
b. Delhi
c. Orissa
d. West Bengal

(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bio-reserves?
a. Manas
b. Nilgiri
c. Gulf of Mannar
d. Nanda Devi

Ans: (i) d. (ii) a. (iii) c. (iv) a.


2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.
(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
(iii) What is bio-reserve? Give two examples.
(iv) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.
Ans:
(i) Ecosystem -
All plants and animals in an area are interdependent and inter-related to each other in their physical environment. This life-supporting system comprising the physical environment i.e. non-living components, like - climate, soil, river etc. along with all organisms living therein, is called an Ecosystem.

(ii) Factors responsible for distribution of flora and fauna in India:
India is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world having a wide spread plant and animal species. The various factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals (flora and fauna) on the earth and also in India can be listed as below -
(a) Relief including land, soil type, drainage etc.
(b) Climate which include temperature, photoperiod, precipitation etc.

(iii) Bio-reserve or Biosphere Reserves are large areas of protected land for conservation of wild-life, plant and animal resources (especially endangered species of flora and fauna) including micro-organisms and traditional life of the tribals in their natural habitat. Thus, a bio-reserve helps to maintain the bio-diversity and culture of that area. It may also contain other protected areas in it. For example, Pachmari biosphere reserve consists of one National Park named Satpura and two Wild Life Sanctuaries named Bori and Pachmari.
Examples of two other reserves are - Nilgiri, Nanda Devi.

(iv) Tropical type animals - Elephants, Monkeys, Rats etc.
Montane type animals - Spotted deer, Kashmir stag, Antelope etc.

3: Distinguish between
(i) Flora and fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests.

Ans: (i)
Flora - Flora is the term used for the total vegetation or plant cover of a region. This includes flowering and non-flowering plants of all types and sizes.

Fauna - It is the term used to refer to all the varieties of animals found in an area. Thus, fauna is the animal life of a given area.

Ans: (ii)
Tropical Evergreen Forest
Features
• Found in the areas having heavy rainfall, more than 200 cm with short or no dry season. Warm and wet throughout the year.
• Luxuriant vegetation comprising trees, shrubs, and creepers giving a multilayered structure.
• Trees don’t shed leaves at a time appear green all the year.
• The thick canopies don’t allow the sunlight to penetrate the forests even during the daytime.
Flora
Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber and Cinchona.
Fauna
Elephant, Monkey, One-horned rhinoceros, Deer, different types of Birds, Reptiles, Bats, Scorpions etc.
Occurrence
Rainy parts of Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu Coast, some parts of Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa etc.


Tropical Deciduous Forest
Features
• Most wide spread vegetation type in India.
• Rainfall between 200 - 70 cm.
• These regions experiences seasonal changes.
• Trees shed their leaves in the dry season and conserve water.
• On the basis of the availability of water these forests are further are subdivided into moist and dry deciduous.
Flora
• Commercially significant hardwood trees are found here.
• Teak is the most dominant species. Others are Bamboos, Sal, Shisham, Sandalwood, Khair, Neem, Kusum etc.
Fauna
Lion, Tiger, Pig, Elephant, Deer, variety of Birds, Lizards, Snakes and Insects etc.
Occurrence
Northeastern states, Foothills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa, Chhattisgarh, rainier parts of Peninsular Plateaus, eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Plains of Bihar and U.P.

4: Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: The names of different types of vegetation found in India are as follows -
1. Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests
2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
4. Montane Forests
5. Mangrove Forests (The Tidal Forests)

The type of vegetation found at the high altitudes is Montane Forest. The following are the descriptions of Montane Forests -
Features
• Found at high altitudes in mountainous areas.
• There is a succession of natural vegetation belts as per altitude:
*1000m - 2000m: Wet temperate forests. Evergreen broad leaf trees like oaks and chestnuts predominate.
*1500m - 3000m: Temperate forest containing coniferous trees like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Spruce and Cedar. Cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas.
*3000m - 3600m: Temperate Grasslands.
*Above 3600m: Alpine Vegetation. Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines and Birches are common. At even higher altitudes and with the approach of the snow line the vegetation changes from shrubs and scrubs to alpine and Grasslands. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs grow during the very short summer which is called Tundra type of Vegetation.

Fauna
The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir Stag, Spotted Deer, Wild Sheep, Antelope, Jack Rabbit, Snow Leopard, Yak, Squirrels, Red Panda, Sheep and Goats with thick hair etc.

5: Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans: Endangered species of plants and animals are those which face the danger of getting extinct. About 1300 plant species and quite a few animal species have been distinguished as endangered species in India. The main causes for this endangerment of plant and animal; species are as follows:
1. Hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes.
2. Pollution due to chemical and industrial wastes etc.
3. Increasing population.
4. Reckless cutting of plants and trees to bring the land under cultivation, expanding industrialization and in-habitation etc.
5. Introduction of alien species causing imbalance in the ecosystem.

6: Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Ans: India has all the major physical features i.e. topography varying from mountains, plains, desserts, plateaus, islands etc. The different regions of the country have different soil types. Though India has an essentially monsoon type of climate, it has great variations in temperature and humidity across the country. Each of the factors responsible for the diversity in flora and fauna such as land, soil, temperature, photo-period, precipitation etc. is variation across the length and breadth of the country. As a result of which India has got rich heritage of flora and fauna.


NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE | CLASS 09 | NCERT | GEOGRAPHY | CHAPTER 05

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