NATIONALISM IN INDIA
1. The first world war, Khilafat and Non Cooperation movement-
War and its effects- Huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Through the years, the prices increased, doubling between 1913- 1918 leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
2. Gandhiji and Satyagraha-
Champaran in Bihar (1916) and Kheda in Gujarat (1917). In 1919 nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act was launched by Gandhiji. 13th April and Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, world war I and Khilafat issue shook the country. At the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and Non-cooperation programme was adopted. Movements in towns, Rebellion in country side could be seen.
2) Towards civil Disobedience-
1) Swaraj Party was founded by C.R .Das and Motilal Nehru for return to council Politics.
2) Simon commission and boycott
3) Lahore congress and demand for purna swaraj
3) Dandi march and the civil Disobedience movements-
1) Government’s repressive policy
2) Gandhi Irwin Pact and failure of round table conference.
3) Relaunching of movements.
4) Who participated in the movements -
The rich peasant communities, the poor peasantry, the industrial workers in Nagpur and a large scale proportion of women, took active part in the movement.
5) Limits of the movements -
Less participation by untouchables. - Ambedker for separate electorate and Poona pact.
6) The sense of collective belonging-
The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles, role of folklore & songs and Identity of India and Bharat Mata.
Multiple Choice Questions of Nationalism in India1Q. By whom was the Swaraj Party formed?
a) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das
b) Subhas Chandra Bose and Sardar Patel
c) Jawaharlal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad
d) Motilal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad
2Q. By whom was the first image of Bharatmata painted?
a) Rabindranath Tagore
b) Abanindranath Tagore
c) Ravi Verma
d) Nandalal Bose
3Q. Why did the Indians oppose the Rowlatt Act?
a) It introduced the Salt Law.
b) It increased taxes on land
c) It gave the British the power to arrest and detain a person without a trial
d) It put a ban on the Congress party.
4Q. By what name were the dalits referred by Gandhiji?
5Q. Why did Gandhiji organise a Satyagraha in Ahmedabad Mill in 1918?
a) To protest against the poor working condition in the factory.
b) To demand for a higher wages for workers.
c) To protest against high revenue demand.
d) None of the above.
6Q. Why was the Round Table Conference held in England?
a) To discuss the provisions of future Indian Constitution.
b) To discuss the steps to be taken to check Indian National Movement
c) To give concessions to Indians
d) To make plans for improvement of agriculture in India.
7Q. What does the term Khalifa refer?
a) Sultan of a Muslim country
b) Spiritual leader of the Muslim
c) Nawab of a Muslim state
d) Badshah of Mughal period
8Q. What kind of movement was launched by the tribal peasants of Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh?
a) Satyagraha Movement
b) Militant Guerrilla Movement
c) Non-Violent Movement
d) None of the above.
9Q. Hind Swaraj' was written by?
a) Abul Kalam Azad
b) Mahatma Gandhi
c) Sardar Patel
d)Subhas Chandra Bose
10Q. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 the peasants were not permitted to
a) Leave their village
b) Settle in the city
c) Leave their plantation without permission
d) Allow the women to leave farmlands without permission
11Q. Which among the following was the prime factor in the emergence of modern nationalism in India?
a) New symbols
b) New ideas
d) Anti-colonial movement
12Q. In which year did Gandhiji return to India from South Africa?
a) Jan. 1915
b) Feb. 1916
c) Jan. 1916
d) Feb. 1915
13Q. Satyagraha was
a) pure soul force
b) weapon of the week
c) physical force
d) force of arms
14Q. Champaran Satyagraha (1916) was launched by Gandhiji against
a) high revenue demand
b) indigo planters
c) mill owners
d) salt tax
15Q. Which among the following was the reason for Indian opposition to the Rowlatt Act (1919)?
a) It was passed hurriedly
b) It gave the govt. enormous powers
c) Local leaders were picked up
d) It authorised the government to imprison people without trial
16Q. In which city Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy took place?
17Q. Whcih of the following formed the Khilafat Commitee in Bombay?
a) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
b) Ali Brothers
c) Abdul Ghaffar Khan
d) Surendra Nath Banerjee
18Q. The famous book of Gandhiji is
a) My Experiments with truth
b) Hind Swaraj
c) Discovery of India
d) Main Kampf
20Q. What did the Rowlatt Act, 1919 presume?
(a) Detention of political prisoners without trial
(b) Forced recruitment in the army
(c) Forced manual labour
(d) Equal pay for equal work
21Q. What did Mahatma Gandhi in his book, Hind Swaraj, declare?
(a) British ruled India because the latter was militarily weak
(b) British ruled India because Indians cooperated with them
(c) British ruled India because they got international support
(d) None of these
22Q. What did the term 'picket' refer to?
(a) Stealing from shops
(b) Import of goods
(c) Protest by blocking shop entrances
(d) Boycott of clothes and goods
23Q. Who led the peasants in Awadh?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Baba Ramchandra
(d) None of these
24Q. What did the term 'begar' mean?
(a) Payment of wages
(b) High rents demanded by landlords
(c) Labour without payment
(d) None of these
25Q. What was the effect of the Non-cooperation movement on the plantation workers in Assam?
(a) They left the plantations and headed home
(b) They went on strike
(c) They destroyed the plantations
(d) None of these
26Q. What was the main problem with the Simon Commission?
(a) It was an all British commission
(b) It was formed in Britain
(c) It was set up in response to the nationalist movement
(d) All of the above
27Q. Where was Gandhi's ashram located?
28Q. What led to the Civil Disobedience Movement?
(a) Arrival of the Simon Commission
(b) Working at the firm without payments
(c) Violation of Salt Tax by Gandhi
(d) Fall in demand for agricultural goods
29Q. Who were the 'Sanatanis'?
(c) High-caste Hindus
(d) None of these
30Q. Who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) B.R. Ambedkar
31Q. What moved Abanindranath Tagore to paint the famous image of Bharat Mata?
(a) Civil Disobedience Movement
(b) Swadeshi Movement
(c) Quit India Movement
(d) All of these
32Q. Who wrote the 'Vande Matram'?
(a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Abanindranath Tagore
(d) Sardar Vallabhai Patel
33Q. Who was Sir Mohammad Iqbal?
(a) Congress President
(b) President of the Muslim League, 1930
(c) Gandhiji's devout disciple
(d) None of these
16.(a) 17.(b) 18.(d) 19.(c) 20.(a) 21.(b) 22.(c) 23.(c) 24.(c) 25.(a) 26.(a) 27.(b) 28.(c) 29.(c) 30.(d) 31.(b) 32.(a) 33.(b)
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Question Answers of Nationalism in India
Ans. In Champaran Bihar (1916) to inspire peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system and in 1917 in Kheda district of Gujarat to support the peasants affected by crop failure in their demand for relaxation in revenue collection.
02. What was the period of the:
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement and (b) the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. (a) 1920 to 1922
(b) 1930 to 1934
03. What was the motion of Swaraj for plantation workers in Assam?
Ans. For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj or freedom meant the right to move freely and retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
04. Where, when and Why did Gandhiji organise his first Satyagraha Movement in India?
Ans. Gandhiji organised his first Satyagraha Movement in Champaram in 1916, to inspire peasants to Struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
05. Where, When and Why in Gujarat did Gandhiji organise a Satyagraha?
Ans. Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha in Kheda district of Gujarat in 1917, to support the peasants affected by crop failure and plague epidemic in their demand for relaxation in revenue collection.
06. When and for whom did Gandhiji Organise a movement in Ahmedabad?
Ans. Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha Movement for Cotton mill workers in 1918, in Ahmedabad.
07. When was the Indian National Congress founded?
Ans. The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885.
08. Name three leaders of the early phase of the Congress (Moderate leaders).
Ans. (1) Dadabhai Naroji.
(2) Surendranath Banerjee.
(3) Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
09. What is meant by Bal, Pal, Lal?
Ans. Bal, Pal, Lal are the short forms for the three extremist leaders Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai.
10. Who assumed the leadership of the national movement in 1919?
Ans. Mahandas Karamchand Gandi (M.K. Gandhi).
11. Give the Greatest achievement of Gandiji in the social field.
Ans. The greatest achievement of Gandhiji among others in the Social field was to start a campaign against the inhuman practice of untouchability.
12. When the where did the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy take place? Name the person instrumental in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place in Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, on April 13, 1919 (day of Baisakhi) and General Dyer was the person instrumental in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
13. Next to Gandhi who was the central figure in the new phase of nationalism? Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru.
14. From where and when did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in January 1915.
15. What and why was the strategy developed by Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa was called 'Satyagraha'?
Ans. It was a novel method of mass agitation to fight the racist regime.
16. What is the characteristic feature of the idea of satyagraha?
Ans. The characteristic feature of the idea of satyagraha is, it emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It was dharma of non-violence.
17. Why did Gandhi support the Khilafat issue?
Ans. Gandhiji supported the Khilafat issue because in it he saw an opportunity to bring Muslims under the Umbrella of a unified national movement.
18. Which two leaders advocated the adoption of Socialist ideas? Or Name the young leaders of the national movement?
Ans. (1) Jawaharlal Nehru, and (2) Subhash Chandra Bose
19. When were the elections of the Provincial Legislative Councils held after this passage of the Government of India Act of 1935?
Ans. In 1937.
20. When was the the Muslim League founded?
Ans. In 1906.
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
Answer: There is an old saying, “Enemy’s enemy is my friend”. Something of the same kind happened in India and in most of the countries under colonial rule. When people started to understand and feel the oppression under colonial rule they tried to rediscover their glorious past. They could understand that it was necessary to fight colonial rulers to restore their glorious past and their freedom. Thus what started as anti – colonial movement, turned into nationalist movement. Everybody had his/her own interpretation of anti-colonialism but the ultimate aim was to get rid of them. This single point was the unifying factor for diverse mass of India. Finally, the idea of India as a nation started to emerge.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
Answer: The First World War created a new economic and political situation. It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced. Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger. Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen. This led to an overall resentment among people.
c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
Answer: The Rowlatt Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Because of potential repression by this act people were highly outrage in India.
d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer: After the Jalianwala Bagh incident there was widespread protest by people. The British rulers reacted brutally. This resulted in large scale violence. Gandhiji wanted to stop violence at all cost. So he decided to withdraw the Non – cooperation movement.
2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Answer: The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
3. Write a newspaper report on:
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Answer: Jalianwala: 13th April, 1919, The News of India: It was a celebration for Baisakhi. Many village folks had gathered at the local garden and were enjoying the fair. Little did they know that for many of them it would be their last fair of life. General Dyer entered the scene. Taking the benefit of prohibitory orders he ordered firing on innocent people. There was all around panic. It was a stampede like situation. To make matters worse General Dyer blocked all the exit points of the garden. Hundreds of people were killed. In the kaliyug of foreign rule it was one of the darkest days in the history of India.
b) The Simon Commission
Answer: Simon Commission: Tackling India without Indian The world is suffering from economic depression but the depression seems to be taking its toll on British rulers minds as well. No matter how tough it will be they would love to rule India sitting miles away in London. They want to view and analyse India from English sunglasses. The fact that there is not a single Indian present in the commission points to this. The so called advanced society thinks that Indians are not evolved enough to think and decide about their own affairs. But when the Simon Commission comes it will be surprised to know what lies in store for it. Nationalists are well prepared this time to give it the well deserved boot.
4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Answer: In both cases the nation has been depicted as a female figure. This points to the visualization of the nation as mother or motherland. Both images show heroism, power and authority. In the case of Germania the crown of oak leaves shows heroism and the sword shows power and authority. In the case of Bharat Mata the lion and elephant show heroism and the flag shows power and a hope for a better future.
5. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Answer: Farmers: For farmers it was becoming difficult to pay high taxes. So for them the freedom movement was a fight for a future with low taxes.
Businessmen: British wanted to promote business interests of British companies. This resulted in laws which were against the business interests of Indian business communities. So for them freedom meant a better environment to do business.
Workers: For workers the freedom movement was having a hope of getting freedom from low ages and unfavourable working conditions.
6. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Answer: Salt is a thing which is used by rich and poor alike. High taxes on salt meant poor could not afford it. For them abolition of the salt tax would have been a boon. For business classes the salt struggle would have ended British monopoly from salt business. So, salt was an issue which could appeal to a almost all people of India. That is why Gandhiji chose salt as an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
7. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer: Gandhiji did not want separate electorates on the basis of religion or caste as he was of the view that it would have divided India. Most of the Hindu leaders were against this. Ambedkar wanted separate electorates for Dalits as he was convinced that it would ensure political power to Dalits. Initally Jinnah was in favour but later agreed to be on Gandhi’s side in the hope of getting adequate representation of Muslims in Muslim dominated states, like Punjab and Bengal.